A blog post
African American Maritime History Series--Introduction Long before the Portuguese wandered along the West African coast, Africans had a global reputation as skilled swimmers, divers, and surfers. Portuguese explorers were amazed by the swimming and diving abilities of Africans. Senegambian canoe men were impossible to capture after they leaped into water. The economic dynamics of the Atlantic world linked Asia and Europe to African in ways that produced significant commercial activity long before the Atlantic triangular trade to include enslavement of Africans. The history of maritime and ancient maritime trade between civilizations predated Atlantic trade routes by thousands of years. Long before the Portuguese wandered along the West African coast, Africans had a global reputation as skilled swimmers, divers, and surfers. Portuguese explorers were amazed by the swimming and diving abilities of Africans. Senegambian canoe men were impossible to capture after they leaped into water. The economic dynamics of the Atlantic world linked Asia and Europe to African in ways that produced significant commercial activity long before the Atlantic triangular trade to include enslavement of Africans. The history of maritime and ancient maritime trade between civilizations predated Atlantic trade routes by thousands of years. Rice as a crop in the Americas was the major driver of the Atlantic trade of enslaved Africans and maritime activity is a significant part of the story. Maritime activity moves people, food, and changes what and how people cook and eat. Slavery in the Americas had huge maritime elements (shipping captured people; shipping food stu" as part of the triangular trade; naval battles attributed to race lines). White Europeans had no experience growing or cooking rice. Africans did and were deliberately earmarked, captured and enslaved to grow rice in the Southern United States Lowcountry. African enslaved cooks were given European recipes and then, gave them African interpretation. Freed African Americans continued the culinary traditions. Other food ways involving the Atlantic coast from Maine to the Lowcountry involved the seafood caught such as oysters, shrimp, fish, and other sea delicacies. Enslaved patroons (boat captains) provided an invaluable service to planters, who had to bring their staple products—rice, indigo and cotton to market, but they were also purveyors of information for networks of rebellious communications and illicit trade. As the fourth largest city in colonial America and the wealthiest, there are very few accounts of the city of Charleston, South Carolina’s contribution to American maritime history and development especially from an African American perspective. Since the settlement of Charleston in 1670, Charleston, the Lowcountry and the Southern Atlantic seaboard was propelled by maritime commerce. Charleston, a city where goods and materials were brought to ships from the surrounding region for delivery elsewhere, and a place where ships brought humans, goods, and materials to be sold or shipped. The port of Charleston dominated maritime trade in the American South in colonial and early antebellum days. Between the Revolution and the Civil War, more African Americans were employed or enslaved as workers in the maritime trades than in any other industry. Presently, little remains of Charleston, Lowcountry or the Southern Atlantic African American maritime history. When one considers the numbers and types of ships that called on Charleston and other southern port cities, were built there, and are otherwise connected with these ports, there is extraordinarily little mention of the myriad of enslaved Africans laboring on the water and on the wharves throughout the Lowcountry or the melodramatic escapes by enslaved persons using maritime means and methods. The economic heyday of Charles Town, 1720 to 1820 coincided with the peak of colonial sailing ships. International trade which also incorporated the transatlantic slave trade spawned the wealth that built the grand historic homes and gardens of the South Carolina cities of Charleston, Beaufort, and Georgetown. South Carolina’s plantation economy thrived on maritime global trade and the hundreds of ocean borne vessels that docked in Charleston each year to load rice, indigo and Sea Island cotton for European markets. By the 1720s, the slave trade from Africa to Carolina also flourished. From 1716 to 1807, the Holy City, as Charleston was so ironically nicknamed, was the port-of-entry for an estimated 40 percent of all enslaved persons brought into America. "Ships from South Carolina carried rice, cotton, and other goods back to Europe." (“Rise and Fall and Rise: South Carolina’s Maritime History”) However, the slave trade is not the only subject related to the African American maritime experience. African Americans were involved in virtually every aspect of antebellum maritime commerce from laborers to sailors to vessel ownership. The Underground Railroad also made extensive use of ships to spirit slaves to freedom in the North and in Canada. Following the Civil War, African Americans sought economic freedom and freedom from repression by becoming crew and stewards in the coastal packet and passenger trades. Thus far, there has been insu"icient study or discovery of the material record of most of these maritime endeavors by Africans and African Americans. The purpose of this series is to bring more information to the forefront about the tremendous contributions of African Americans to the building of America from an economic perspective. In the midst of this maritime backdrop, stories of Black achievement, struggles against the sea, struggles against racism, and little-known aspects of daily maritime life and work have been buried in the passage of time. These narratives right size not only African American history, but more importantly American history which begs to be more inclusive of all the contributions of people who made the United States of America into a global economic and military superpower. The rich and fertile maritime history along the Southern Atlantic seaboard was responsible for a majority of what is now known as the Underground Railroad as opposed to what was previously viewed as having been conducted predominantly along terrestrial routes. When we think about slavery in America, more often than not, we think about the sprawling Deep South plantations where the enslaved Africans toiled from sunup to sundown in the fields and homes of plantations owners. This description evokes images of weary slaves always dreaming and plotting a way out of their captivity. It evokes the exploits of those who led slave revolts such as Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner. It also conjures images of the enslaved traversing the Underground Railroad under the leadership of Harriett Tubman. But we might be surprised to learn the geography of the maritime Southern Underground Railroad—that it was conducted primarily by water in the southern coastal cities. There is a broader maritime component of enslavement and African American life and experiences in America that deserves deeper exploration. Maritime history reaches across many disciplines. The range of vantage points include science and technology, industry, economics, trade and business, art, literature, military and naval a"airs, international relations, comparative studies in imperial and colonial a"airs, communications and transportation, intercultural relations and exchange, law, institutional and organizational development, the exploitation and conservation of natural maritime resources, social relations and labor, sports, and recreation. These disciplines within maritime history and culture also represent the innumerable pathways Africans, and African Americans—freed and enslaved-- provided their individual and collective knowledge, skills, abilities and ingenuity to the building of the United States of America from the very beginning. This series seeks to illustrate little known and unknown aspects of African and African American contributions to maritime world history and especially lower Atlantic seaboard history during the early development of America when the waterways were the major transportation network. Kim Cliett Long, Ed.D., FRSM, FRSPH.. Support for this series provided by: Artwork provided by Jonathan Abridged Series References Abridged Series References Anderson, Harold. “Black Men, Blue Waters: African Americans on the Chesapeake.” Maryland Marine Notes. 16:2 (1998): 1–3, 6–7. Arenson, Adam. “Experience Rather than Imagination: Researching the Return Migration of African North Americans during the American Civil War and Reconstruction.” Journal of American Ethnic History 32:2 (2013): 73–77. Provides some introductory insights into the porous nature of the Great Lakes boundary for African Americans in the antebellum and postwar periods. “Autobiography of Omar ibn Said, Slave in North Carolina, 1831.” American Historical Review 30:4 (1925): 787–95. Baptist, Edward E. The Half Has Never Been Told—Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, 2016. Bauer, K. Jack. A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America’s Seas and Waterways. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988. Beckert, Sven, and Seth Rockman, eds. Slavery’s Capitalism: A New History of American Economic Development Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016. Beckert, Sven. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014. Billingsley, Andrew. Yearning to Breath Free: Robert Smalls of South Carolina and His Families. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007. Smalls was a slave steamboat pilot who broke through Confederate lines with his vessel, Planter, joined the US Navy, (and supposedly was one of Lincoln’s inspirations to accept African Americans into the Union forces) and postwar won places both in the South Carolina and US House of Representatives after founding the Republican Party of SC. Bolster, W Je"rey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997. Bolster, W. Je"rey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998. Bolster, W. Je"rey. “Letters by African American Sailors, 1799–1814.” William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 64:1 (2007): 167–82. Bolster, W. Je"rey. “‘To Feel Like a Man’: Black Seamen in the Northern States, 1800–1860.” Journal of American History 76:4 (1990): 1173–199. Bonner, Robert, “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Seas?: Civil War Statecraft and the Liberal Quest for Oceanic Order.” In The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, ed. by Jörg Nagler, Don H. Doyle, and Marcus Gräser, 15–31. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Brooks, George E. Eurafricans In Western Africa: Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and Religious Observance from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003. Brooks, Mark J., Barbara E. Taylor, and Andrew H. Ivester. “Carolina Bays: Time Capsules of Culture and Climate Change.” Southeastern Archaeology 29:1 (2010): 146–63. Brown, Matthew D. “Olaudah Equiano and the Sailor’s Telegraph: ‘The Interesting Narrative’ and the Source of Black Abolitionism.” Callaloo 36:1 (2013): 191–201. Brown, William B. Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave. Written by Himself. Boston: The Anti-slavery O"ice, 1847.Documenting the American South. Slave Narratives. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/brown47/menu.html By 1849, the Narrative of William W. Brown was in its fourth edition, having sold over 8,000 copies in less than eighteen months and making it one of the fastest-selling antislavery tracts of its time. The book’s popularity can be attributed both to the strong voice of its author and Brown’s notoriety as an abolitionist speaker. The son of a slave and a white man, Brown recounts his years in servitude, his cruel masters, and the brutal whippings he and those around him received. He provides a detailed description of his failed attempt to escape with his mother; after their capture, they were sold to new masters. A subsequent escape attempt succeeds. He is taken in by a kind Quaker, Wells Brown, whose name he adopts in gratitude. Shortly thereafter, Brown crosses the Canadian border. Brown’s Narrative includes stories of fighting devious slave traders and bounty hunters, various antislavery poems, articles and stories (written by him and others), newspaper clippings, reward posters, and slave sale announcements. Buchanan, Thomas C. “Rascals on the Antebellum Mississippi: African-American Steamboat Workers and the St. Louis Hanging of 1841.” Journal of Social History 34:4 (2001): 797–816. Buchanan, Thomas C. Black Life on the Mississippi: Slaves, Free Blacks, and the Western Steamboat World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Campbell, James T. Middle Passages: African American Journeys to Africa, 1787–2005. New York: Penguin Books, 2007. Carey, Anthony G. Sold Down the River: Slavery in the Lower Chattahoochee Valley of Alabama and Georgia. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2011. Cecelski, David S. “Moses Grandy: A Slave Waterman’s Life.” Tributaries 4 (1994): 6–13. Cecelski, David S. “The Shores of Freedom: The Maritime Underground Railroad in North Carolina, 1800–1861.” North Carolina Historical Review 71:2 (1994): 174–206. Cecelski, David S. The Waterman’s Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012. Cecelski, David. “The Last Daughter of Davis Ridge: Slavery and Freedom in the Maritime South.” In Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2000, ed. by Glenn S. Gordinier, 104–15. Mystic: Mystic Seaport, 2005. Chambers, Stephen M. No God but Gain: The Untold Story of Cuban Slavery, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Making of the United States. London: Verso, 2017. Clavin, Matthew J. “An ‘Underground Railway’ to Pensacola and the Impending Crisis over Slavery.” Florida Historical Quarterly 92:4 (2014): 685–713. Cu"ee, Paul. Memoir of Captain Paul Cu"ee, a Man of Colour: To Which is Subjoined the Epistle of the Society of Sierra Leone, in Africa, &c., 1811. Reprint Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, 2006. Perfect bound Dawson, Kevin. “Enslaved Ship Pilots in the Age of Revolutions: Challenging Notions of Race and Slavery between the Boundaries of Land and Sea.” Journal of Social History 47:1 (2013): 71–100. Dawson, Kevin. “Enslaved Swimmers and Divers in Atlantic World.” Journal of American History 92:4 (2006): 1327–55. Dawson, Kevin. “Enslaved Underwater Divers in the Atlantic World.” In Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2006, ed. by Glenn S. Gordinier, 61–76. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 2008. Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998. Douglass, Frederick. “Cheap Labor.” New National Era, August 17, 1871, 21. Douglass, Frederick. “The Dolores Ugarte.” The New National Era, August 17, 1871, 3. Newspaper account about the loss of the coolie ship Dolores Ugarte. Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845). In The Portable Frederick Douglass, ed. by John Stau"er and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 3–100. New York: Penguin, 2016. Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017. Eltis, David, Philip Morgan, and David Richardson. “Agency and Diaspora in Atlantic History: Reassessing the African Contribution to Rice Cultivation in the Americas.” American Historical Review 112:5 (2007): 1329–58. Equiano, Olaudah. The Life of Olaudah Equiano. Edited by Joslyn T. Pine. Mineola: Dover, 1999. Farr, James. “A Slow Boat to Nowhere: The Multi-Racial Crews of the American Whaling Industry.” Journal of Negro History 68:2 (1983): 159–70. Farrow, Anne, Joel Lang, and Jenifer Frank. Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery. New York: Ballantine Books, 2006. Foy, Charles R. “Possibilities and Limits for Freedom: Maritime Fugitives in British North America, ca. 1713–1783.” In Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2006, ed. by Glenn S. Gordinier, 47–60. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 2008. Foy, Charles. “Ports of Slavery, Ports of Freedom: How Slaves Used Northern Seaports’ Maritime Industry to Escape and Create Transatlantic Identities, 1713–83.” PhD diss. Rutgers, The State Univ. of NJ, 2008. Freyer, Tony Allan. The Passenger Cases and the Commerce Clause: Immigrants, Blacks, and States’ Rights in Antebellum America. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2014. Muse Book—chapters can be downloaded. Gilbert, Geo"rey. “Maritime Enterprise in the New Republic: Investment in Baltimore Shipping, 1789– 1793.” Business History Review 58:1 (1984): 14–29. Girard, Philippe R. “Black Talleyrand: Toussaint Louverture’s Diplomacy, 1798–1802.” William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 66:1 (2009): 87–124. Gordinier, Glenn S., ed. Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2006. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 2008. Gordinier, Glenn S., ed. Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2000. Mystic: Mystic Seaport, 2005. Grandy, Moses, dictated to George Thompson. Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Late a Slave in the United States of America. Boston: Oliver Johnson, 1841. Grandy was a slave waterman and vessel pilot in North Carolina who bought his freedom twice before finally succeeding on his third attempt. He became a noted abolitionist while working in Boston-area shipyards and as a mariner. Since he was illiterate, he dictated his story, which he also planned would generate funds so he could buy his family’s freedom. Guyatt, Nicholas, “Tocqueville’s Prophecy: The United States and the Caribbean, 1850–1871.” In The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, ed. by Jörg Nagler, Don H. Doyle, and Marcus Gräser, 205–29. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Hamer, Philip M. “Great Britain, the United States, and the Negro Seamen Acts, 1822–1848.” Journal of Southern History 1:1 (1935): 3–28. Hardy, Penelope K., and Helen M. Rozwadowski. “Maury for Modern Times: Navigating a Racist Legacy in Ocean Science.” Oceanography 33:3 (2020): 8–13. Amid recent calls in the United States and elsewhere to remove statues and other references that glorify historically racist figures, we o"er a reexamination of nineteenth-century naval o"icer and early ocean scientist Matthew Fontaine Maury. While Maury made significant contributions toward understanding and representing the oceanatmosphere system and argued for increased support from both government and the public for such studies, his work, including his science, was also inextricably involved in his nation’s imperialist goals. Before and after his resignation from the United States Navy to join the Confederacy during the American Civil War, Maury worked for the perpetuation and expansion of race-based slavery. For these reasons, we argue that oceanographers, historians, and the public need to rethink depictions of Maury that glorify his accomplishments without interrogating their darker side. Presenting honest portrayals is not only historically responsible but also aids the larger endeavor to recruit and retain more diverse students and scientists for ocean science. Harmon, Judd. “Suppress and Protect: The United States Navy, the African Slave Trade, and Maritime Commerce, 1794–1862.” PhD diss. Coll. of William and Mary, Lyon Gardiner Tyler University, 1977. Harris, Lynn B. Patroons & Periaguas: Enslaved Watermen and Watercraft of the Lowcountry. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2014. Head, David. Privateers of the Americas: Spanish American Privateering from the United States in the Early Republic. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015. 201 pp. 05–06 Honeck, Mischa, “Uprooted Emancipators: Transatlantic Abolitionism and the Politics of Belonging.” In The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, ed. by Jörg Nagler, Don H. Doyle, and Marcus Gräser, 109–126. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Horne, Gerald. Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica. New York: New York University Press, 2009. Voices on the River: The Story of the Mississippi Waterways. New York: MacMillan, 1964. Howarth, Stephen. To Shining Sea: A History of the United States Navy, 1775-1991. New York: Random House, 1991. Hunt, Monica. “Organized Labor along Savannah’s Waterfront: Mutual Cooperation among Black and White Longshoremen, 1865–1894.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 92:2 (2008): 177–99. Jackson, L. P. “Virginia Negro Soldiers and Seamen in the American Revolution.” Journal of Negro History 27:3 (1942): 247–87. Johnson, Walter. River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom.Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013. Joyner, Charles W. Down by the Riverside: A South Carolina Slave Community. 25th anniversary ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009. Karp, Matthew J. “Slavery and American Sea Power: The Navalist Impulse in the Antebellum South.” Journal of Southern History 77:2 (2011): 283–324. Kazanjian, David. “Mercantile Exchanges, Mercantilist Enclosures: Racial Capitalism in the Black Mariner Narratives of Venture Smith and John Jea.” CR: The New Centennial Review 3:1 (2003): 147– 78. Kennedy, Paul M. The Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Random House, 1987. Kenney, William. “Jazz on the Waterways: Movement, Migration, and Music.” In Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2000, ed. by Glenn S. Gordinier, 50–61. Mystic: Mystic Seaport, 2005. Kilmarx, Robert A., ed. America ‘s Maritime Legacy: A History of the U.S. Merchant Marine and Shipbuilding Industry Since Colonial Times. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979. Kurlanskv, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker and Company, 1997. Kverndal, Roald. Seamen’s Missions: Their Origin and Early Growth. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 1986. Laing, Alexander. American Heritage History of Seafaring America. New York: American Heritage, 1974. Langley, Harold D. “The Negro in the Navy and Merchant Service—1789–1860 1798.” Journal of Negro History 52:4 (1967): 273–86. Linebaugh, Peter and Rediker, Marcus Buford. The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Boston: Beacon Press, 2000. Lineberry, Cate. Be Free or Die: The Amazing Story of Robert Smalls’ Escape from Slavery to Union Hero. New York: Picador, 2018. Lloyd, Christopher. The Navy and the Slave Trade: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1968; 2016. Mannix, Daniel R, and Malcolm Cowley. Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1518- 1865. New York: Viking Press, 1962. McCormack, Lauren, Anne Grimes Rand, and Kristin K. Gallas. “‘I never had any better fighters”: Black Sailors in the United States Navy during the War of 1812.” In Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Power in Maritime America: Papers from the Conference Held at Mystic Seaport, September 2006, ed. by Glenn S. Gordinier, 87–100. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 2008. Millett, Nathaniel. The Maroons of Prospect Blu" and Their Quest for Freedom in the Atlantic World. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2013. Mitcham, John C. “Patrolling the White Man’s Grave: The Impact of Disease on Anglo-American Naval Operations Against the Slave Trade, 1841–1862.” Northern Mariner/Le marin du nord 20:1 (2010): 37– 56. Moebs, Thomas Truxtun. Black Soldiers—Black Sailors—Black Ink: A Research Guide on African Americans in U.S. Military History, 1526–1900. Chesapeake Bay: Moeb Publishing, 1994. Morris, James M. Our Maritime Heritage: Maritime Developments and Their Impact on American Life. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1978. Murray, Robert. “Bodies in Motion: Liberian Settlers, Medicine, and Mobility in the Atlantic World.” Journal of the Early Republic 39:4 (2019): 615–46. Mustakeem, Sowande’. “‘I Never Have Such a Sickly Ship Before’: Diet, Disease, and Mortality in 18thCentury Atlantic Slaving Voyages.” Journal of African American History 93:4 (2008): 474–96. Nelson, Dennis D. The Integration of the Negro into the United States Navy, 1776–1947. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, 1948. S&I Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853. Auburn: 1853. O’Malley, Gregory E. “Beyond the Middle Passage: Slave Migration from the Caribbean to North America, 1619–1807.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 66:1 (2009): 125–72. O’Malley, Gregory E. “Slavery’s Converging Ground: Charleston’s Slave Trade as the Black Heart of the Lowcountry.” William and Mary Quarterly 74:2 (2017): 271–302. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5309/willmaryquar.74.2.0271. History and the Sea: Essays on Maritime Strategies. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989. Putney, Martha. Black Sailors: Afro-American Merchant Seamen and Whalemen Prior to the Civil War. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1987. Putney, Martha S. “Richard Johnson: An Early E"ort in Black Enterprise.” Negro History Bulletin 45:2 (1982): 46–47. Brief account of black whaleship owner in the 1830s. Ramold, Steven J. Slaves, Sailors, Citizens: African Americans in the Union Navy. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002. “Excellent” Rockman, Seth. Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in early Baltimore. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. Rogers, John G. Origins of Sea Terms. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1984. Rugemer, Edward B. “Slave Rebels and Abolitionists: The Black Atlantic and the Coming of the Civil War.” Journal of the Civil War Era 2:2 (2012): 179–202. Schoen, Brian, “Southern Wealth, Global Profits: Cotton, Economic Culture, and the Coming of the Civil War.” In The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, ed. by Jörg Nagler, Don H. Doyle, and Marcus Gräser, 69–90. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Schoeppner, Michael A. “Peculiar Quarantines: The Seamen Acts and Regulatory Authority in the Antebellum South.” Law and History Review 31:3 (2013): 559–86. Smith, Benjamin Allen Concannon. “Impatient and Pestilent: Public Health and the Reopening of the Slave Trade in Early National Charleston.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 114:1 (2013): 29–58. Smith, Christopher J. “Blacks and Irish on the Riverine Frontiers: The Roots of American Popular Music.” Southern Cultures 17:1 (2011): 75–102. Sokolow, Michael. Charles Benson: Mariner of Color in the Age of Sail. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003. Stein, Douglas L. American Maritime Documents 1776-1860, Illustrated and Described. Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1992. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Thompson, Michael D. Working on the Dock of the Bay: Labor and Enterprise in an Antebellum Southern Port. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2015. Tomblin, Barbara Brooks. Bluejackets and Contrabands: African Americans and the Union Navy. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010. Tompkins, E. Berkeley. “Black Ahab: William T. Shorey, Whaling Master.” California Historical Quarterly 51:1 (1972): 75–84. Towers, Frank. “Job Busting at Baltimore Shipyards: Racial Violence in the Civil War-Era South.” Journal of Southern History 66:2 (2000): 221–56. Winch, Julie. “‘No Common Lot’: An African-American Sailor’s Half-Century at Sea in the Age of Sail.” Winsboro, Irvin D. S., and Joe Knetsch. “Florida Slaves, the ‘Saltwater Railroad’ to the Bahamas, and Anglo-American Diplomacy.” Journal of Southern History 79:1 (2013): 51–78.
My post content